[94] Between 3:00 pm, 3 December and 2:00 pm, 4 December local time, several expressways from Nanjing to other Jiangsu cities were closed, stranding dozens of passenger buses in Zhongyangmen bus station. From the 1960s to 1980s there were five pillar industries, namely, electronics, automobiles, petrochemical, iron and steel, and power, each with big state-owned firms. It was renamed Shengzhou (昇州) in the Tang dynasty and resuscitated during the late Tang. The Imperial Japanese Army Forces, across six weeks, stormed the city of Nanking and savagely murdered and raped thousands of civilians and soldiers. THE RAPE OF NANKING is a detailed and well researched chronicle of a situation of man's inhumanity to man and an important lesson in history. Since then, the city experienced destruction and renewal many times. [82] However, the time from mid-June to the end of July is the plum blossom blooming season in which the meiyu (rainy season of East Asia; literally "plum rain") occurs, during which the city experiences a period of mild rain as well as dampness. cSeparate state-planning cities. [108] Big civilian-run enterprise include Suning Commerce, Yurun, Sanpower, Fuzhong, Hiteker, 5stars, Jinpu, Tiandi, CTTQ Pharmaceutical, Nanjing Iron and Steel Company and Simcere Pharmaceutical. "梁都之时,城中二十八万户,西至石头,东至倪塘,南至石子冈,北过蒋山,东西南北各四十里。", In the 3rd year of Jianyan (1129), Jiankang became Temporary Capital (, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFDennerline2002 (, Ho Ping-ti. The official told his children in Nanjing to prepare to defect to Koxinga which he himself was preparing to do. The OECD estimated the encompassing metropolitan area at the time as 11.7 million. Nanjing Dashengguan Yangtze River Bridge built. The city first became a Chinese national capital as early as the Jin dynasty. As the capital of the brief-lived rebel Taiping Heavenly Kingdom in the mid-19th century, Nanjing was known as Tianjing (天京; '"Heavenly Capital" or "Capital of Heaven"'). First the rebellions by eight Jin princes for the throne and later rebellions and invasion from Xiongnu and other nomadic peoples that destroyed the rule of the Jin dynasty in the north. Meanwhile, the satins from Nanjing were called "tribute satins" ("贡缎"), because they were usually paid as tribute to the monarchy. As from October 2014, Nanjing had four bridges and two tunnels over the Yangtze River, linking districts north of the river with the city center on the south bank.[110]. This article incorporates information from the Chinese Wikipedia. [36], It was chosen as the capital and called Jinling (金陵) during the Southern Tang (937–976), which succeeded the state of Yang Wu. [97] Prevailing winds blew low-hanging air masses of factory emissions (mostly SO2) towards China's east coast.[98]. In addition, it has several natural hot springs such as Tangshan Hot Spring in Jiangning and Tangquan Hot Spring in Pukou. [e] The region is also well known as Dongnan (东南, South East, the Southeast) and Jiangnan (江南, and River South, South of Yangtze). Smith, and Sharp have established their lines, and a number of multinationals such as Ford, IBM, Lucent, Samsung and SAP established research center there. Along with Chongqing and Wuhan, Nanjing is traditionally referred to as one of the "Three Furnaces" along the Yangtze River for the perennially high temperatures in the summertime. Hence, Nanjing still had itself imperial government with extremely limited power before 1644. [59] Days after Yangzhou fell to the Manchus in late May 1645, the Hongguang Emperor fled Nanjing, and the imperial Ming Palace was looted by local residents. Nanjing is the transport hub in eastern China and the downstream Yangtze River area. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia as part of it. As of 2010[update], it operated six public ports and three industrial ports. As Nanjing was the capital of the Ming dynasty, the industries further expanded, where both state-owned and numerous private businesses served the imperial court. A few days before the fall of the city, the National Government of China was relocated to the southwestern city Chungking (Chongqing) and resumed Chinese resistance. [126] Nanjing has another airport – Nanjing Ma'an International Airport which temporarily serves as a dual-use military and civil airport. Furthermore, the west part of the Ningzhen range is in Nanjing; the Loong-like Zhong Mountain curls round the east side of the city, while the tiger-like Stone Mountain crouches in the west of the city, hence the name “the Zhong Mountain, a dragon curling, and the Stone Mountain, a tiger crouching”. By late 1949, the PLA was pursuing remnants of KMT forces southwards in southern China, and only Tibet and Hainan Island were left. [107] Overenthusiastic in building a “world-class” industrial city, the government also made many disastrous mistakes during development, such as spending hundreds of millions of yuan to mine for non-existent coal, resulting in negative economic growth in the late 1960s. Meanwhile, a Yangtze River deep-water channel is under construction to enable Nanjing to handle the navigation of 50,000 DWT vessels from the East China Sea. Its gymnasium has capacity of 13,000, and natatorium of capacity 3,000. [95] The smog dissipated 12 December. [32] Possibly the best preserved of them is the ensemble of the Tomb of Xiao Xiu (475–518), a brother of Emperor Wu of Liang.[33][34]. At present, the full name of the government of Nanjing is "People's Government of Nanjing City" and the city is under the one-party rule of the CPC, with the CPC Nanjing Committee Secretary as the de facto governor of the city and the mayor as the executive head of the government working under the secretary. In 2013, Nanjing airport handled 15,011,792 passengers and 255,788.6 tonnes of freight. Koxinga's attack on Qing held Nanjing which would interrupt the supply route of the Grand Canal leading to possible starvation in Beijing caused such fear that the Manchus (Tartares) considered returning to Manchuria (Tartary) and abandoning China according to a 1671 account by a French missionary. Nanjing's airport, Lukou International Airport NKG, serves both national and international flights. Here is a short list: Former Ministry of Foreign Affairs Buildings, National Revolutionary Army Memorial Cemetery, Gate of Presidential Residence at Purple Mountain, Yuhuatai Memorial Park of Revolutionary Martyrs, Memorial Hall of the Victims in Nanjing Massacre by Japanese Invaders, Zifeng Tower ranks among the tallest buildings in the world, opened for commercial operations in 2010.[145]. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in October 1949, Nanjing was initially a province-level municipality, but it was soon merged into Jiangsu and again became the provincial capital by replacing Zhenjiang which was transferred in 1928, and retains that status to this day. Other museums include the City Museum of Nanjing in the Chaotian Palace, the Oriental Metropolitan Museum,[g] the China Modern History Museum in the Presidential Palace, the Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall, the Taiping Kingdom History Museum, Jiangning Imperial Silk Manufacturing Museum,[h] Nanjing Yunjin Museum, Nanjing City Wall Cultural Museum, Nanjing Customs Museum in Ganxi House,[i] Nanjing Astronomical History Museum, Nanjing Paleontological Museum, Nanjing Geological Museum, Nanjing Riverstones Museum, and other museums and memorials such Zheng He Memorial[j] Jinling Four Modern Calligraphers Memorial.[k]. [111] It serves as rail junction for the Beijing-Shanghai (Jinghu) (which is itself composed of the old Jinpu and Huning Railways), Nanjing–Tongling Railway (Ningtong), Nanjing–Qidong (Ningqi), and the Nanjing-Xi'an (Ningxi) which encompasses the Hefei–Nanjing Railway. Here in Yecheng, Yuecheng and Jinling Yi, both Cheng and Yi mean city. The New York Times bestselling account of one of history's most brutal -- and forgotten -- massacres, when the Japanese army destroyed China's capital city on the eve of World War II In December 1937, one of the most horrific atrocities in the long annals of wartime barbarity occurred. [118] At present, the Nanjing Metro system has a grand total of 377 km (234 mi) of route and 173 stations across 10 lines. [78] In 1946, after the Surrender of Japan, the KMT relocated its central government back to Nanjing. All three are significant players economically and politically, Beijing and Shanghai particularly. Heavy traffic congestion football club currently staying in Chinese Super League, is a long-term tenant Nanjing. Had worldwide connections also employs many different style of cooking methods, such as Communication of. The restaurant specializing in Jinling cuisine is Ma Xiang Xing ( 马祥兴菜馆.. Kangxi and Qianlong emperors a number of times on their tours of the of... 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